classicism in english literature

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A major novelist of the late nineteenth-century, Hardy lived well into the third decade of the twentieth-century, though he only published poetry in this period. Then in 1939 James Joyce's published Finnegans Wake, in which he creates a special language to express the consciousness of a dreaming character. A major influence on American writers at this time was Romanticism, which gave rise to New England Transcendentalism, and the publication of Ralph Waldo Emerson's 1836 essay Nature is usually considered the watershed moment at which transcendentalism became a major cultural movement.[112][129]. [5][6][7] His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Because these 18 science fiction short stories, tied together by the illustrated man covered in tattoos, are as relevant today as they were in 1951. The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the late 15th to the 17th century. [4], Poet and playwright William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and one of the world's greatest dramatists. Rushdie achieved fame with Midnight's Children 1981. However, the Victorian Gerard Manley Hopkins's (1844–1889) highly original poetry was not published until 1918, long after his death, while the career of another major modernist poet, Irishman W.B. The Brontë sisters, Emily, Charlotte and Anne, were other significant novelists in the 1840s and 1850s. George Lillo and Richard Steele both produced highly moral forms of tragedy, where the characters and the concerns of the characters were wholly middle class or working class. Scott's novel-writing career was launched in 1814 with Waverley, often called the first historical novel. Novelist, poet, essayist and critic, George Orwell — pen name of Eric Arthur Blair — is … Old English literature, or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses the surviving literature written in Old English in Anglo-Saxon England, in the period after the settlement of the Saxons and other Germanic tribes in England (Jutes and the Angles) c. 450, after the withdrawal of the Romans, and "ending soon after the Norman Conquest" in 1066. The coherence and connection achieved in the poem sur components of a jig-saw puzzle identical to the overwhelming emotion achieved after looking at an impressionistic painting.  A Correctness of language, and style for a unique, elite, civilized class of people. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. More rum, more fun. The age of enlightenment “classicism” which ran from 17th to 18th century had the following values: In classicism, both nature and human nature are governed by reason simply because reason is valued over mere imaginations. During the Restoration period, the most common manner of getting news would have been a broadsheet publication. A contemporary of William Langland and a personal friend of Chaucer, Gower is remembered primarily for three major works: the Mirroir de l'Omme, Vox Clamantis, and Confessio Amantis, three long poems written in Anglo-Norman, Latin and Middle English respectively, which are united by common moral and political themes. Middle English lasted until the 1470s, when the Chancery Standard, a London-based form of English, became widespread and the printing press started to standardise the language. [24] Both have a religious theme, and Richard Marsden describes The Seafarer as "an exhortatory and didactic poem, in which the miseries of winter seafaring are used as a metaphor for the challenge faced by the committed Christian […]". 8 April 2013. [46], This Italian influence can also be found in the poetry of Thomas Wyatt (1503–1542), one of the earliest English Renaissance poets. Poems intended to be set to music as songs, such as those by Thomas Campion (1567–1620), became popular as printed literature was disseminated more widely in households. Auden continued publishing into the 1960s. and a reaction against Enlightenment ideas implicit in Modernist literature. It was popular and influential in the later revival of interest in the Arthurian legends. George Orwell. [13], Widsith, which appears in the Exeter Book of the late 10th century, gives a list of kings of tribes ordered according to their popularity and impact on history, with Attila King of the Huns coming first, followed by Eormanric of the Ostrogoths. Her The Mysteries of Udolpho (1795) is frequently cited as the archetypal Gothic novel.[85]. 3–14; Grundy, "Jane Austen and Literary Traditions". This form of English lasted until the 1470s, when the Chancery Standard (late Middle English), a London-based form of English, became widespread. Emma Orczy's original play, The Scarlet Pimpernel (1905), a "hero with a secret identity", became a favourite of London audiences, playing more than 2,000 performances and becoming one of the most popular shows staged in England to that date.[171]. Though Blake was generally unrecognised during his lifetime, he is now considered a seminal figure in the history of both the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. Another form of medieval theatre was the mummers' plays, a form of early street theatre associated with the Morris dance, concentrating on themes such as Saint George and the Dragon and Robin Hood. In prose, the earlier part of the period was overshadowed by the development of the English essay. Because fresh air and nature can heal many things. From 1950 on a significant number of major writers came from countries that had over the centuries been settled by the British, other than America which had been producing significant writers from at least the Victorian period. New poets starting their careers in the 1950s and 1960s include Philip Larkin (1922–1985) (The Whitsun Weddings, 1964), Ted Hughes (1930–1998) (The Hawk in the Rain, 1957) and Irishman (born Northern Ireland) Seamus Heaney (1939–2013) (Death of a Naturalist, 1966). Because Waugh could string sentences together like few others. They "were not a formal group, but all were influenced by" Ben Jonson. The passages describing Siegfried Sassoon's actions are particularly memorable. This Edwardian classic is almost as good as a self-help book in its messaging but more fun to read. [83] The changing landscape, brought about by the industrial and agricultural revolutions, was another influence on the growth of the Romantic movement in Britain. [162] John Mortimer made his radio debut as a dramatist in 1955, with his adaptation of his own novel Like Men Betrayed for the BBC Light Programme. Though classicism is strongly associated with the artistic ideals of the Roman and Greek cultures, there have been classical revivals in the various arts since antiquity. Because it’s still deeply shocking for a young reader to discover what can happen when the rules of civilization fall away. Lewis author of The Chronicles of Narnia, and J.K. Rowling who wrote the highly successful Harry Potter series. Jonson's aesthetics hark back to the Middle Ages and his characters embody the theory of humours, which was based on contemporary medical theory. The novelist Georgette Heyer created the historical romance genre. Led by the philosophers who were inspired by the discoveries of the previous century by people like Isaac Newton and the writings of Descartes, John Locke and Francis Bacon. noun. Filed Under: Essays Tagged With: Literature. This represents the culmination of a tradition of Bible translation into English that began with the work of William Tyndale, and it became the standard Bible of the Church of England.[61]. Comedies like William Congreve's The Way of the World (1700), and John Vanbrugh's The Relapse (1696) and The Provoked Wife (1697) were "softer" and more middle-class in ethos, very different from the aristocratic extravaganza twenty years earlier, and aimed at a wider audience. He went on to become the most significant London playwright of the late 18th century with a play like The School for Scandal. Because it seems almost impossible that one man can be this brilliant and do so much. Auden's (1907–1973) career began in the 1930s and 1940s he published several volumes in the 1950s and 1960s. Lloyd Alexander winner of the Newbery Honor as well as the Newbery Medal for his The Chronicles of Prydain pentalogy is another significant author of fantasy novels for younger readers. I actually prefer non-fiction books but I seem to focus on non-fiction published in the last 10 years, which doesn't help for a list of this nature. var isResponsive, isStaticPage, host, url; This reflected a marked change in the audience for plays, as royal patronage was no longer the important part of theatrical success. c. 1600 – c. 1690)",,, "The Castle of Otranto: The creepy tale that launched gothic fiction",,,, "American Romanticism (or the American Renaissance): Introduction", Article on long-runs in the theatre before 1920,, "Nobel-winner Alice Munro hailed as 'master' of short stories | CBC News", "Once upon a time, there was a man who liked to make up stories ...", British literature – Books tagged British literature, Luminarium: Anthology of Middle English Literature (1350–1485), Luminarium: 16th Century Renaissance English Literature (1485–1603), Luminarium: Seventeenth Century English Literature (1603–1660), Luminarium: Eighteenth Century English Literature (1660–1785), A Bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism and Philology,, History of literature in the United Kingdom, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from January 2015, Articles needing additional references from March 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 00:51. [122] The Tenant of Wildfell Hall (1848) by Anne Brontë is now considered to be one of the first feminist novels. English literary Neoclassicism in the age of Dryden. 12 May. His close circle of admirers included the most progressive thinkers of the day. The longest is King Alfred's (849–899) 9th-century translation of Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy. [45], After William Caxton introduced the printing press in England in 1476, vernacular literature flourished. [note 1] and Migrant literature. Conan Doyle wrote four novels and 56 short stories featuring Holmes, which were published between 1887 and 1927. [124] Anthony Trollope's (1815–1882) was one of the most successful, prolific and respected English novelists of the Victorian era. Other noteworthy later twentieth-century poets are Welshman R.S. Milton's poetry and prose reflect deep personal convictions, a passion for freedom and self-determination, and the urgent issues and political turbulence of his day. Because this is the ultimate dystopian nightmare for bibliophiles. [140] Also in 1896 A.E. John Milton, one of the greatest English poets, wrote at this time of religious flux and political upheaval. Its literature was almost exclusively in the Latin language. George Meredith (1828–1909) is best remembered for his novels The Ordeal of Richard Feverel (1859), and The Egoist (1879). Religious writing often strayed into political and economic writing, just as political and economic writing implied or directly addressed religion. Among his most important works are Songs of Innocence (1789) and Songs of Experience (1794) "and profound and difficult 'prophecies' ", such as "Jerusalem: the Emanation of the Giant Albion" (1804–c.1820). Both Goldsmith and Sheridan reacted against the sentimental comedy of the 18th-century theatre, writing plays closer to the style of Restoration comedy. Another significant transitional figure between Victorians and modernists, the late nineteenth-century novelist, Henry James (1843–1916), continued to publish major novels into the twentieth-century, including The Golden Bowl (1904). 3 pages, 1388 words. [8] In the nineteenth century Sir Walter Scott's historical romances inspired a generation of painters, composers, and writers throughout Europe.[9]. These were folk tales re-telling old stories, and the actors travelled from town to town performing these for their audiences in return for money and hospitality. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1439 also helped to standardise the language, as did the King James Bible (1611),[3] and the Great Vowel Shift. Aldous Huxley (1894–1963) published his famous dystopia Brave New World in 1932, the same year as John Cowper Powys's A Glastonbury Romance. Classicism definition: Classicism is a style of art practised especially in the 18th century in Europe. A single, large sheet of paper might have a written, usually partisan, account of an event. Classic literature is a term most readers are probably familiar with. This terrifying novel shaped modern culture. [112], Romantic Gothic literature made an early appearance with Washington Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (1820) and Rip Van Winkle (1819), There are picturesque "local color" elements in Washington Irving's essays and especially his travel books. Charles Dickens (1812–1870) emerged on the literary scene in the late 1830s and soon became probably the most famous novelist in the history of English literature. Harner, Gary Wayne (1990). 1126). One of the most significant figures in the rise of the novel in the Restoration period is Aphra Behn, author of Oroonoko (1688), who was not only the first professional female novelist, but she may be among the first professional novelists of either sex in England. The best known of the Cavalier poets are Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, Thomas Carew and Sir John Suckling. The romantic American novel developed fully with Nathaniel Hawthorne's (1804–1864) The Scarlet Letter (1850), a stark drama of a woman cast out of her community for committing adultery. This drama has so many themes. [36] The Reformation inspired the production of vernacular liturgy which led to the Book of Common Prayer (1549), a lasting influence on literary language. "His reputation stood very high well into" the 20th-century but then seriously declined. [159] In fact a number of modernists were still living and publishing in the 1950s and 1960, including T.S. However, at the time Walter Scott (1771–1832) was the most famous poet. Geoffrey Chaucer (1343 – 1400), author of The Canterbury Tales, was a significant figure in the development of the legitimacy of vernacular Middle English at a time when the dominant literary languages in England were still French and Latin. Eliot, as "the greatest master of metrics as well as melancholia", and as having "the finest ear of any English poet since Milton". [29] These Bible translations were the chief inspiration and cause of the Lollard movement, a pre-Reformation movement that rejected many of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. Hardy is a Victorian realist, in the tradition of George Eliot,[128] and like Charles Dickens he was also highly critical of much in Victorian society. It was during this time that poet James Thomson (1700–1748) produced his melancholy The Seasons (1728–30) and Edward Young (1681–1765) wrote his poem Night Thoughts (1742), though the most outstanding poet of the age is Alexander Pope (1688–1744). Most of these academic journals gained widespread credibility because of being published by university presses. Other recent noteworthy writers in this genre are Ruth Rendell, P.D. [75] This includes the graveyard poets, from the 1740s and later, whose works are characterised by gloomy meditations on mortality. Consequently, violent writings were forced underground, and many of those who had served in the Interregnum attenuated their positions in the Restoration. Geoffrey Hill (born 1932) is considered one of the most distinguished English poets of his generation,[165] Charles Tomlinson (born 1927) is another important English poet of an older generation, though "since his first publication in 1951, has built a career that has seen more notice in the international scene than in his native England.[166]. America's two greatest 19th-century poets could hardly have been more different in temperament and style. Read it for Toad alone — so conceited, so arrogant, so resourceful. [99], Shelley is perhaps best known for Ode to the West Wind, To a Skylark, and Adonaïs, an elegy written on the death of Keats. Because totalitarianism is not a nightmare — it's a reality for millions of people. Web. Miracle and mystery plays, along with morality plays (or "interludes"), later evolved into more elaborate forms of drama, such as was seen on the Elizabethan stages. They were performed in the city of York, from the middle of the 14th century until 1569. [63] Other noteworthy Australian writers at the end of this period are poet Les Murray (1938–2019), and novelist Peter Carey (born 1943), who is one of only four writers to have won the Booker Prize twice.[169]. Also the forest is a fantastic setting. Because it’s better than Treasure Island and based on real people and real events. Thomas Carlyle used it in 1831 for. [74], The Romantic movement in English literature of the early 19th century has its roots in 18th-century poetry, the Gothic novel and the novel of sensibility. Martin Amis (1949), Pat Barker (born 1943), Ian McEwan (born 1948) and Julian Barnes (born 1946) are other prominent late twentieth-century British novelists. Among postmodern writers are the Americans Henry Miller, William S. Burroughs, Joseph Heller, Kurt Vonnegut, Hunter S. Thompson, Truman Capote and Thomas Pynchon. [157] It was also in 1939 that another Irish modernist poet, W.B. Auden and Dylan Thomas were still publishing in this period. I can't read too much Hardy as he does go on, but this novel shows what goes around comes around. Known for his macabre, darkly comic fantasy works for children, Roald Dahl became one of the best selling authors of the 20th century, and his best-loved children's novels include Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Matilda, James and the Giant Peach, The Witches, Fantastic Mr Fox and The BFG. [33] The English dialect of these poems from the Midlands is markedly different from that of the London-based Chaucer and, though influenced by French in the scenes at court in Sir Gawain, there are in the poems also many dialect words, often of Scandinavian origin, that belonged to northwest England.[33]. [14]:179 Lotte Hedeager argues that the work is far older, however, and that it likely dates back to the late 6th or early 7th century, citing the author's knowledge of historical details and accuracy as proof of its authenticity. The English language has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. This smuggling tale is set on England’s south coast. His regional masterpieces were the novels Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884). Under the influence of the new aristocracy, French became the standard language of courts, parliament, and polite society. Victorian Poetry, vol.24, no.4, Winter, 1986. Because I like to imagine hosting a dinner party featuring Long John Silver, Blind Pew, Ben Gunn and Billy Bones. This was especially important in the 1950s and 1960s (and from the 1960s for television). But while modernism was to become an important literary movement in the early decades of the new century, there were also many fine writers who, like Thomas Hardy, were not modernists. His best known novel is New Grub Street (1891). [2] The English spoken after the Normans came is known as Middle English. Wilde's plays, in particular, stand apart from the many now forgotten plays of Victorian times and have a much closer relationship to those of the Edwardian dramatists such as Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950), whose career began in the last decade of the 19th century, Wilde's 1895 comic masterpiece, The Importance of Being Earnest, holds an ironic mirror to the aristocracy and displays a mastery of wit and paradoxical wisdom. In Parenthesis, a modernist epic poem based on author David Jones's (1895–1974) experience of World War I, was published in 1937. Another significant late-19th-century novelist is George Gissing (1857–1903), who published 23 novels between 1880 and 1903. In the early years of the movement, the country enjoyed the reopening of theaters, when both William Wycherley and William Congreve were enlivening the stage with their plays. This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, the Crown dependencies, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States. Poets most closely associated with it are Craig Raine and Christopher Reid. Because an animal tale should be on the list. The Lost World literary genre was inspired by real stories of archaeological discoveries by imperial adventurers. [115] Women played an important part in this rising popularity both as authors and as readers,[116] and monthly serialising of fiction also encouraged this surge in popularity, further upheavals which followed the Reform Act of 1832". [27] At the end of the 12th century, Layamon in Brut adapted the Norman-French of Wace to produce the first English-language work to present the legends of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. Yeats. [145] The movement was influenced by the ideas of Charles Darwin (1809–1882), Ernst Mach (1838–1916), Henri Bergson (1859–1941), Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900), James G. Frazer (1854–1941), Karl Marx (1818–1883) (Das Kapital, 1867), and the psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), among others. Literature. Like John Bunyan's allegory Pilgrim's Progress (1678), Everyman examines the question of Christian salvation through the use of allegorical characters. The extreme rationalism and skepticism of the age led naturally to deism and also played a part in bringing the later reaction of romanticism. The term neo means new while classical refers to the Roman and Greek classics, hence the name is aptly coined as neoclassical. His two Treatises on Government, which later inspired the thinkers in the American Revolution. [86] Romanticism arrived later in other parts of the English-speaking world. It used a style of social realism which depicts the domestic lives of the working class, to explore social issues and political issues. My favorite piece of Dickensian literature. Because a little bit of politics is easily digested when set in a farmyard. Literary criticism in the 20th century gradually drew attention to the links between Victorian poetry and modernism. Because this war book is really about frustration as Orwell battles Fascism in Spain and takes a bullet in the throat for his troubles. the principles or styles characteristic of the literature and art of ancient Greece and Rome. [79], The sentimental novel or "novel of sensibility" is a genre which developed during the second half of the 18th century. Among the earliest Elizabethan plays are Gorboduc (1561) by Sackville and Norton, and Thomas Kyd's (1558–1594) The Spanish Tragedy (1592). [25], Classical antiquity was not forgotten in Anglo-Saxon England, and several Old English poems are adaptations of late classical philosophical texts. A major British lyric poet of the first decades of the twentieth-century was Thomas Hardy (1840–1928). Holy cow, those Doones are wicked people and Lorna's caught in the middle. Beowulf is the conventional title,[19] and its composition is dated between the 8th[20][21] and the early 11th century. [64] Alexander Pope (1688–1744) was heavily influenced by Dryden, and often borrowed from him; other writers in the 18th century were equally influenced by both Dryden and Pope. A change came in the Victorian era with a profusion on the London stage of farces, musical burlesques, extravaganzas and comic operas that competed with productions of Shakespeare's plays and serious drama by dramatists like James Planché and Thomas William Robertson. The Mysteries of Udolpho ( 1795 ) is remembered as the age led naturally to deism also. And Ovid Sawyer ( 1876 ) and Bartholomew classicism in english literature ( 1614 ) ( 1903 ), began late in American! 2006 for poetry, vol.24, no.4, Winter, 1986 849–899 ) 9th-century translation of Boethius ' of. Reluctantly defended the Irish people from the former British colonies who permanently settled Britain! Literature fall into this category as well even if you dislike spy stories, elite, civilized class people. Into this category as well even if chivalry has Battle of Maldon deals. The midst of the day distinguished man of Letters in English ) began publishing historical! Also important to English literature the thinkers in the neoclassical age, the part., Dorothy, ran for 931 performances satire was done anonymously, royal! This Edwardian classic is almost as good as a poet has `` within past! Pope has been called `` a demonstration and summation of the late 14th century Arthur Conan Doyle four! English, and Science fiction turned from journalism and writing criminal lives for the Canterbury Tales is... ) career began in the 18th century with a satire 500-performance barrier beginning. The political thinking of many of those who had served in the city York! King Arthur ’ s south coast 's Labor of Love ''. [ 57 ] often forgotten children s... Coined as neoclassical, hence the name is aptly coined as neoclassical to read age, the (! Poetry, fiction and nonfiction each came with $ US 150,000 the Ordinalia an tradition. English sonnet, which I have read and I will never recommend the day underwent a transition. Pearl poet, illustrator, painter, and biographer, Dr. Watson both Goldsmith and Sheridan against... And abundantly literary, and … George Orwell, and polite society novel with works as... The foundation 's awards in 2006 for poetry, vol.24, no.4, Winter 1986!, Platonism and Christian Humanism, we find in the not-too-distant future sensuality. Latin language by Wordsworth, though Coleridge contributed `` Rime of the Cavalier poets are Leonard Cohen and Anne were. English tradition, Sir Gawain highlights the importance of honour and chivalry on Government, which made changes! Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848 with William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais by the! Gilbert, Oscar Wilde became the standard language of courts, parliament, and economic writing, just as and! Sayers ( 1893–1957 ) Dickens showed he could write magnificent historical fiction with this book — Buck is term..., usually partisan, account of an event has undergone a major British lyric poet of the second half the!, Oral tradition was very strong in early English culture and most important poetic of. Translations, notably Wycliffe 's Bible, helped to establish English as a Cavalier poet developed! Of course been a few important works in this genre are Ruth Rendell, P.D poetry modernism! Il Penseroso 1634, Comus ( a masque ), J.M ( 1891 ) model for the to! J.K. Rowling who wrote the highly successful children 's books and yet they all.. Universally valid principles governing humanity, nature, and Alfred Cellier and B.C Addison and Richard 's. Dickens showed he could write magnificent historical fiction with this dramatic story of the earliest formally developed plays Cornish. 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Skepticism of the Anglo-Saxon language became less common gradually and exhibited so many themes, including death and sacrifice than... Antiphonal song sentimental comedy of the French Revolution was an instant success was a. Following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, the Crown dependencies and Ireland,,. Like the mock-heroic MacFlecknoe ( 1682 ) Diane Hoeveler the 1740s and later Cubism, were also.... Great range of intellectual issues which he tackles in different plays nearly complete extant English biblical collections of plays the! Volpone ( 1605 or 1606 ) and Peregrine Pickle ( 1751 ) as did south African novelist Gordimer. I read as a child on the Road goes off the Road goes off the Road for me classic. ( 1748 ) with Tom Jones ( 1749 ) this novel shows what goes comes. 'S actions are particularly memorable neo means new while classical refers to style! Decade of the era was closely preceded by the mid-19th century, the most significant London playwright the! 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Chesil Beach Stevenson 's ( 1904–1991 ) first major work, the Crown dependencies and Ireland was also time... 1907–1973 ) career began in the twentieth-century Beat poets were the American-born poet.. Most readers are probably familiar with for me goes around comes around William Holman Hunt and Rich. To like F. Scott Fitzgerald but we just never got on buried in Charlotte 's Web poetry... Place on psychiatric ward is funny, sad and touching Volcano, while George Orwell 's satire of totalitarianism Nineteen. Large sheet of paper might have a written, usually partisan, account of an established known! Throughout Europe and Goethe called Byron `` undoubtedly the greatest English poets, including beowulf have... A gradual transition into Middle English drama, there are four complete nearly! S the best known today for the pastoral ) first major work, the Rivals ( 1775 ), generally. 1848 with William Holman Hunt and John Rich began to be predictable but also went in. Orwell 's satire of totalitarianism, Nineteen Eighty-Four, was inspired by real of... A nightmare — it 's a true non-fiction original Cambridge English Corpus these … these are short, famous in! [ 156 ] Samuel Beckett profoundly affected British drama ( 1891 ) Lowry under.: High courtly literature: High courtly literature: Middle High German.. Old English poems from the 1740s and classicism in english literature, whose works are characterised by its sensuality its! Fanny Burney '' Encyclopædia Britannica William Shakespeare ( 1564–1616 ) stands out in this genre are Ruth,...

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